As with anything the way that I attempt to convey my message is dependent upon the message I am attempting to share, my purpose and my intended audience. Mullen (2011) noted that persuasion is at the root of what we do as researchers, teachers and with our colleagues. We are often trying to convince others of our intended purpose (para 1). He went on to explain logos as the use of argumentation to convey data, statistics and information in a logical format. It’s research based. Pathos, Mullen noted, serves to stir up people’s emotions and appeal to what Chip and Dan Heath referred to as the elephant sides of our brains while logos appeals to our rational rider. Lastly, ethos reflects not only how you speak but the individual integrity you bring to what you are saying. It’s your credibility based on your previous results (para 4-6).
As I look back on the leadership resources that I’ve reviewed they fall into two groups. Resources that are more easily accessible may be considered more popular reading while highly academic pieces follow more rigorous standards and processes before they are published. Does one have more value than the other?
I was certainly drawn to the page turning pop culture books. They not only shared statistics and data they made it come alive by sharing stories and personal experiences. It appealed to my logos and pathos side. A powerful combination when you get both the rider and the elephant headed in the same direction. Over the course of my ETAD program, I came to re-appreciate not only the ideas and data that come from more academic writing, but the rigorous process of publishing respected work. It appealed to me on both a logos and ethos level; moreover, the academic work often forms the foundation for more popular books.
I noticed frequent citation of each other’s work within the more academic realm including both formal studies and academic articles. If you hit on the right concept and trace the research back it forms a long chain of reference. Daniel, Schwier & McCalla (2003), for example, often cited the work of Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) with regard to social capital. Even Google has run with this concept by highlighting the number of times an article has been cited. I’m certainly drawn to the articles that have been cited many times. It seems to reason, they are more credible. It doesn’t necessarily mean those articles have the information I’m interested in learning more about. To apply Nahapiet and Ghoshal’s concept of intellectual capital, the more connections between cited articles the higher the intellectual capital.
In reviewing, Covey’s Speed of Trust references, it’s apparent that Covey wants you to know where the information comes from and he has organized his references by chapter highlighting where he found the material. His references range from interviews, quotations, conferences (i.e. Stanford Leadership Conference), many articles – some of which included newspapers while others included the Harvard Business Review; he noted formal studies, surveys and annual reports. Overall, his resources pulled from both popular culture and academic sources as did Chip and Dan Heath’s in the Switch.
Not all of my pop culture reading and articles provided detailed references. Some simply mentioned the reference in the context of the text. They clearly stated who the information came from, but a list of references wasn’t included in the copies of the books that I read. It is something that I’m more aware of since my return to grad school and it makes me wonder why they didn’t note their sources more directly.
McGonigal’s Super Better book, for example, provided a detailed chapter by chapter break down of the science. In fact, she has even dedicated a website called showmethescience.com to share the research behind living gamefully. In fact, McGonigal’s references tended toward the more academic side citing numerous journals and academic studies. In fact, Super Better, itself has been involved in two clinical trials. So while there is certainly differences in how pop culture authors cite the research, there is ethos embedded into the writing. Sometimes, however, the ethos may come from their status in society not from the detailed references that they provided.
I did notice that Covey’s work was referenced on a few occasions in other pop culture books. I think how often some of them cited each other depended on how recently the book was published. With regard to the concepts of leadership, different authors often mentioned the names of respected and well known leaders instead of citing other books about those leaders.
Having learned more about social and intellectual capital, it’s often what the pop culture leadership books are referring to or at least in part. Again it depends on the message and the particular focus the author is attempting to convey. As with anything, we need to acknowledge that while the main purpose of writing a book or publishing a study is to better the common good and increase what we as a society know. There is a financial factor involved. As a reader, it’s important to actively think about the material you are reading and it sources. Citizens have to be able to make informed decisions and not just go with what sounds best.
Lastly, it’s about the audience. Writers compose their text with a specific audience in mind. Academic writing has a very specific audience and purpose, as does pop culture. The latter perhaps to make the research more accessible to a larger group of people in a variety of social circles. Perhaps how you write and the language you use defines the community of practice to which you belong. Shared language and codes help build positive social capital as does following the expectations and norms of the group. Each group has a different form and standard of what’s considered acceptable when sharing information including different ethical responsibilities.
ETAD 898 has provided a unique opportunity to delve into the topic of leadership from both sides of the spectrum. While some topics distinctly came up in each realm others were more subtly connected. Communities of practice weren’t formally mentioned in the pop culture books, however, the characteristics were discussed in relation to teams and various groups. Researching leadership from both perspectives has increased my appreciation for the ongoing need for both types of writing. In the end it’s about sharing our explicit and if we are willing our tacit knowledge with members of our group. The more diverse our network and sources the more we can grow our understanding of the world around us.
Mullen, Lincoln. (2011). How to Persuade – with Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? ProfHacker